In this path-breaking account, Nikita Sud critically re-examines the post-independence history and politics of Gujarat, one of Indias leading federal units. Today, Gujarat is known for its pioneering role in market liberalization and as the site of ethno-religious strife. Adopting a long-term view, Sud offers a fresh perspective on the seemingly puzzling co-existence of economic liberalism and political illiberalism. Challenging paradigms that posit the decline of the developmental state in India, she places the ideas, institutions and politics of the state at the heart of the analysis. Highlighting the states recent re-orientation, both as an enabler of the market and as a vehicle for Hindu cultural nationalism, Sud explores how interactions between a re-invigorated state, private corporate capital and ethno-nationalism are configuring the new India.